Effects of classroom Management on Children with Behavioural Disorder in Pre-Nursery School children
- Background to the Study
In every organization setup, there is a need for effective management. That is when there can be a productive effort. Classroom behaviour is one of the most complicated issues teachers face today because classrooms are much more complicated than they were in the previous years, more pupils come to school with behavioural problems than ever before and teachers face the challenge of managing their behaviour. The most common behaviour problems for three- and four years-old are impulsivity, hyperactivity, and aggression. Approximately 10% – 20 % of preschoolers have been shown to exhibit these behaviors at significant levels either at home or at preschool (Powell, Fixsen, & Dunlap, 2003).
Challenging behaviour in the classroom most often takes the form of disrupted sleeping and eating routines, physical and verbal aggression, property destruction, severe tantrums, self-injury, noncompliance, and withdrawal (Smith & Fox, 2003). In most cases, the problems that teacher faces in the classroom are due to;
- a) The school’s inability to meet the pupil’s needs and,
- b) In adequate pupil’s socialization (Matsagouras, 2001).
As for preschool classes, Gouriotou (2008) suggests that the child’s social behaviour can be affected (positively or negatively) by the general ambience of the kindergarten classroom. This includes the organization of the kindergarten environment, the curriculum, the attitude that teacher presents towards the variety of behaviours, and the family – kindergarten relation.
It is true that no matter how good a teacher or his/her pupils may be, there may always arise circumstances that call for management either at personal or classroom level (Matsagouras, 2001). The most current approaches to the topic are derived from two primary considerations: a) classroom discipline is not an individual problem but a collective one. For this reason classroom management cannot focus on the individual case, but must attend to the proper functioning of the class, and b) instructional processes require rules related to classroom functioning and general social order.
Lang and Hebert (2005) suggest that effective classroom management involves effective instruction. Teacher’s instruction within the classroom, aid at the acquisition of pupil’s both academic and non – academic skills. Classroom management has been defined broadly as any action a teacher takes to create an environment that supports and facilitates both academic and social-emotional learning (Evertson & Weinstein, 2006). However, effective classroom management provides pupils with opportunities to socialize while learning.
Some years ago, a systematic best evidence review was conducted to identify evidence based practices in classroom management to inform research and practice (Simonsen, Fairbanks, Briesch, Myers, & Sugai, 2008). Results of the evaluation of 81 studies identified 20 general practices that met the criteria for evidence-based practices. These 20 general practices that teachers use fell into five broad categories:
(1) Maximize structure and predictability;
(2) Post, teach, review, and provide feedback on expectations;
(3) Actively engage pupils in observable ways;
(4) Use a continuum of strategies to acknowledge appropriate behavior,
(5) Use a continuum of strategies to respond to inappropriate behavior (Simonsen, et. al., 2008). Also, Lewis, Romi, Katz, and Qui (2008); Lewis, Roache, and Romi, (2011) suggest that teachers use six categories of discipline practices, including: Rewarding, Punishing, Involvement in decision-making, Discussion and Negotiation, Hinting, and Aggression. Additionally, combinations of one or more of these strategies comprise most of the available approaches to discipline (Charles, 2008; Tauber, 2007).
Most of early childhood teachers safeguard an exciting, enjoyable, secure environment and create positive relationships in their classrooms because they know that teachers who are warm and attentive and who engage and encourage children, build strong relationships with children and minimize misbehaviours in their classrooms. Edwards and Raikes (2002) suggest that positive relationships between early childhood educators and children provide a potential classroom management tool. Also, structuring a positive classroom climate is essential in creating learning contexts in which children build a strong sense of being valued, confident, and competent. Another important factor in effective classroom management is bonding within the group, which will help children to adopt values like cooperation, mutual help, respect, and communication. All the above result in lower incidents of negative behavior as well as antisocial tendencies, and add to socially acceptable behavior. It is known that rules and clear expectations are components of effective behavior management in kindergarten classrooms. According to Jones and Jones (2001) there are certain factors that increase the likelihood of successful classroom rules in early childhood:
- Pupils need to be involved in developing rules,
- Rules should be clearly stated,
- As few as possible rules should be developed,
- Pupils should state their acceptance of the rules in a formal way. Lucid expectations entail knowing what to do and when to do it (Vacca & Bagdi, 2005) and make children feel comfortable and secure in kindergarten. Walker, Shea, and Bauer (2007) suggest practices which are based on the development of a pupil’s self-control and supportability of a teacher’s confidence. So, pupils become independent and gradually internalize procedures, daily routines and rules.
1.2. Statement of the problem
Classroom plays an important role in the life of pupils. The primary reason being that classroom is the bedrock of successful academic pursuit. It is a centre where teaching-learning process takes place. It is also the place where teachers and pupils meet. However, classroom is believed not to be well managed by many teachers. The reason for this is that the products of pupils in pre-nursery schools are often seen to have some basic problems in some educational pursuit. Many pre-nursery school pupils in Afijio Local Government are believed not to be able to express themselves in correct English language. Also, many pupils are believed to have problems in mathematics. These problems are traced to classroom management at pre-school levels. On this, the researcher intends to carry out a study on effects of classroom management on children with behavioural disorder in pre School children.
1.3 Research Questions
(i) How does teacher’s attitude affect the pre-school classroom management of children with behavioural disorder?
(ii) Does classroom statutory books have effects on teaching-learning performance of children with behavioural disorders in pre-schools?
(iii)does the classroom setting of pupils with behavioural disorder has effects on their academic performance?
1.4 Aims and Objectives of the Study
The main purpose of the study is to determine effects of classroom management on children with behavioural disorder in pre School children. The study also intends to examine classroom management and implications on children with behavioural disorder. The study guided by the following objectives:
- To identify the causes of poor classroom management in pre-nursery schools in Afijio Local Government Area of Oyo State.
- To identify the effect of poor classroom management on the children who have behavioural disorder.
- To examine the implications of effective classroom management on effective delivery in the instructional process.
- To identify ways to enhance effective classroom management.
1.5 Scope of the Study
This research work examines the effects of classroom management on children with behavioural disorder in pre School children. The scope of this study will be limited to some selected pre-nursery schools in Afijio Local Government area in Oyo State.
1.6 Significance of the study
This study will be of help to many people in the society especially teachers teaching pre-school children as it will be of benefits to educational planners and educational managers. This is because they will be able to have an indept look into how classroom affect the academic performance of learners with learning disabilities. The study is also of significance to specialists taking care of the educational curriculum of learners with behavioural disorder.
The study will be of immense benefits to teachers teaching learners with behavioural disorder as they will be able to understand the effects of classroom management on what they are teaching their behavioural disabled children. Without doubt, this study will really be of great benefit to Ministry of Education, and government at large by aiding them in giving setting educational policy.
1.7. Definition of the terms
Classroom Management: In this study, it refers to how teacher takes care of his/her classroom and the resources in the classroom including the pupils.
Behavioural Disorder: This is one of the disorders that is affecting those who have disabilities. The disability has effect on the behavioural state of the learners
Pre – Nursery schools: In the study, this refers to the classes in schools that precede the nursery classes in private schools and few government owned schools.